concrete pouring




1. 三鈣矽酸鹽(C₃S):
- 化學式:3CaO·SiO₂
- 與水迅速反應,在混凝土中提早發展強度。

2. 二鈣矽酸鹽(C₂S):
- 化學式:2CaO·SiO₂
- 反應較慢,有助於混凝土的長期強度。

3. 三鈣鋁酸鹽(C₃A):
- 化學式:3CaO·Al₂O₃
- 與水迅速反應,並促使水泥的初始凝固。

4. 四鈣鋁鐵酸鹽(C₄AF):
- 化學式:4CaO·Al₂O₃·Fe₂O₃
- 有助於顏色並且可以與水反應,雖然與C₃S和C₂S相比對強度影響較小。



1. 初始混合:
- C₃A與水反應形成鋁酸鈣水合物和熱量。
- 石膏(用於控制凝固時間)與C₃A反應形成石膏石膏(鋁酸鈣硫酸鹽水合物)。

Understanding the Chemistry of Cement and Concrete

concrete pouring

Cement and concrete are fundamental materials in construction, known for their versatility, strength, and durability. Their chemistry is quite complex and involves several key components and processes. Here’s an overview of the chemistry behind cement and concrete:

Cement Chemistry

Cement is a fine powder that acts as a binder in concrete. The most common type of cement is Portland cement, which primarily consists of the following compounds:


concrete pouring




1. 三カルシウム珪酸塩(C₃S):
- 化学式:3CaO·SiO₂
- 水と迅速に反応し、コンクリートの早期強度発現をもたらします。

2. 二カルシウム珪酸塩(C₂S):
- 化学式:2CaO·SiO₂
- よりゆっくりと反応し、コンクリートの長期的な強度に寄与します。

3. 三カルシウムアルミネート(C₃A):
- 化学式:3CaO·Al₂O₃
- 水と迅速に反応し、セメントの初期設定に寄与します。

4. 四カルシウムアルミノフェライト(C₄AF):
- 化学式:4CaO·Al₂O₃·Fe₂O₃
- 色に寄与し、水と反応することができますが、C₃SやC₂Sと比較して強度にはあまり影響しません。


concrete pouring




1. 三钙硅酸盐 (C₃S):
- 化学式:3CaO·SiO₂
- 与水迅速反应,导致混凝土早期强度的发展。

2. 二钙硅酸盐 (C₂S):
- 化学式:2CaO·SiO₂
- 反应较慢,有助于混凝土的长期强度。

3. 三钙铝酸盐 (C₃A):
- 化学式:3CaO·Al₂O₃
- 与水迅速反应,有助于水泥的初始凝固。

4. 四钙铝铁酸盐 (C₄AF):
- 化学式:4CaO·Al₂O₃·Fe₂O₃
- 有助于颜色,并可与水反应,但对强度的影响比C₃S和C₂S小。



1. 初始混合:
- C₃A与水反应形成水合铝酸钙和热量。
- 石膏(添加以控制凝固时间)与C₃A反应形成钙矾石(硫酸铝酸钙水合物)。

How does a transformer work

transformers on the utility pole

Transformers work on the principle of electromagnetic induction. They consist of two coils of wire, known as the primary and secondary coils, wrapped around a common iron core. When an alternating current (AC) flows through the primary coil, it creates a changing magnetic field around the iron core. This changing magnetic field induces a voltage in the secondary coil through electromagnetic induction. The ratio of the number of turns in the primary coil to the number of turns in the secondary coil determines the voltage ratio between the input and output of the transformer.

The Crucial Role of the Power Grid in Delivering Electricity to Households

Understanding the Power Grid

Power grid is the interconnected network of power generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure that delivers electricity from power plants to consumers. It's a complex system that includes power plants (such as coal, natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, and solar), high-voltage transmission lines, substations, transformers, distribution lines, and local distribution networks.

How many electrons in 1 Amp electric current

To determine the number of electrons needed to produce 1 ampere (A) of electric current, we can use the concept of elementary charge and the definition of the ampere.

The elementary charge (e) is the charge of a single electron or proton, which is approximately 1.602x10-19 coulombs.

The definition of 1 ampere (A) is 1 coulomb of electric charge passing through a point in a circuit per second.

So, to find the number of electrons needed to produce 1 ampere of electric current, we can use the equation:

What is energy

Explaining Energy to a Child

Energy can be thought of as the magical force that makes things happen. When you run, jump, or play, you're using energy to move and have fun. It's like the hidden spark that brings everything to life!